An internationally recognized expert in the field of drug policy, Dr. John Carnevale has served three administrations and four ?Drug Czars? within the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government. At the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), he directed the formulation of the President?s National Drug Control Strategy as well as the federal drug control budget. Dr. Carnevale is recognized as the key architect of the Performance Measures of Effectiveness (PME) System which ONDCP used to determine progress towards national goals and objectives. He is also credited with directing policy research that shifted the primary focus of the Nation?s Drug Control Strategy from supply to demand reduction. During the Bush-Cheney Transition, Dr. Carnevale was responsible for leading ONDCP activities. Previously he worked as a researcher at the Office of Management and Budget and in the U.S. Department of the Treasury in the Office of State and Local Affairs. Dr. Carnevale received his Ph.D. in Economics from the Maxwell School of Syracuse University.