Interior

 

Interior

Weekly Roundup: October 9-13, 2017

Friday, October 13th, 2017 - 13:41
John Kamensky

Bryan Rice

Wednesday, July 19th, 2017 - 11:29
Phrase: 
What role does fire play in shaping natural resource land management? How does Interior’s Office of Wildland Fire work to suppress wildland fire? What is being done to reduce the risks to first responders and the public? Join host Michael Keegan as he explores these questions and more with Bryan Rice, Director of the Office of Wildland Fire, Department of the Interior.
Radio show date: 
Mon, 10/16/2017
Guest: 
Intro text: 
Bryan Rice

Weekly Roundup: June 19 - 23, 2017

Friday, June 23rd, 2017 - 11:30
John Kamensky

Dr. Richard Beck

Friday, July 18th, 2014 - 8:18
Phrase: 
What is the U.S. Department of the Interior doing to advance its performance and results agenda? How can strategic planning translate into better agency results and foster culture of performance improvement? Join host Michael Keegan as he explores these questions and much more with Dr. Richard Beck, director, Office of Planning and Performance Management at the U.S. Department of the Interior. That’s next week on The Business of Government Hour.
Radio show date: 
Mon, 07/21/2014
Guest: 
Intro text: 
What is the U.S. Department of the Interior doing to advance its performance and results agenda? How can strategic planning translate into better agency results and foster culture of performance improvement? Join host Michael Keegan as he explores these questions and much more with Dr. Richard Beck, director, Office of Planning and Performance Management at the U.S. Department of the Interior. That’s next week on The Business of Government Hour.

Dr. Richard Beck

Friday, July 18th, 2014 - 8:17
Dr. Richard Beck is presently the Department of the Interior’s Director for Planning and Performance Management. In this capacity, he is responsible for the office’s ability to provide leadership, guidance, and consulting services for the Department of the Interior on strategic planning, performance management, and organizational streamlining to improve decision making and effectiveness. Dr. Beck also serves as the Department’s Deputy Performance Improvement Officer.

Signs of Procurement Revolution

Wednesday, November 25th, 2009 - 0:51
The Senate confirmed Dan Gordon as the administrator of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy in the Office of Management and Budget.  He comes highly recommended by Steve Kelman, a former holder of this job who was acclaimed as an innovator.

Recovery Act Tracking

Tuesday, June 23rd, 2009 - 14:57
The Washington Post reports today that a new survey shows citizens’ confidence is slipping in their belief that the Recovery Act will boost the economy.  Whoever was surveyed clearly has not been reading OMB guidance on expectations for how these monies will be tracked!

Obama Agency Visits

Thursday, March 19th, 2009 - 17:28
During campaign his campaign, President Obama said he wanted to “make government cool again.”  A good place is to start at home.  And he seems to be following some of his predecessors by visiting different federal agencies in his first week

Robert Doyle interview

Friday, October 3rd, 2008 - 20:00
Phrase: 
"The natural environment continues to pose risks to society. USGS has a long and respected history of providing relevant and timely information for responding to hazard events such as earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruptions, and landslides."
Radio show date: 
Sat, 10/04/2008
Guest: 
Intro text: 
"The natural environment continues to pose risks to society. USGS has a long and respected history of providing relevant and timely information for responding to hazard events such as earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruptions, and landslides."
Magazine profile: 
Complete transcript: 

Originally Broadcast October 6, 2008

Washington, D.C.

Announcer: Welcome to The Business of Government Hour, a conversation about management with a government executive who is changing the way government does business. The Business of Government Hour is produced by The IBM Center for The Business of Government, which was created in 1998 to encourage discussion and research into new approaches to improving government effectiveness. You can find out more about this center by visiting us on the web at businessofgovernment.org. And now The Business of Government Hour.

Mr. Morales: Good morning. I'm Albert Morales, your host and managing partner of The IBM Center for The Business of Government.

Mr. Morales: Good morning, and welcome to The Business of Government Hour. I'm Albert Morales your host, and managing partner of The IBM Center for The Business of Government.

Global trends and rapidly evolving societal needs continue to post critical national science challenges. It is the use of natural resources on the global scale, which has the potential to impact the nation's ability to sustain its economy, national security, quality of life, and natural environment.

The U.S. Geological Survey has reputation as a leader in natural science monitoring, assessing, and research. It also plays a vital role in the federal response to many resource challenges facing this nation. With us this morning to discuss his efforts in this area is Robert Doyle, deputy director of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Good morning, Robert.

Mr. Doyle: Good morning.

Mr. Morales: Also joining us in our conversation is Kunal Suryavanshi, associate partner in IBM's federal civilian industry practice.

Good morning, Kunal.

Mr. Suryavanshi: Good morning, Al.

Mr. Morales: Bob, let's start off by learning a bit more about the U.S. Geological Survey, or the USGS. Can you take a few minutes to tell us a little bit about its history, its evolution, and the current mission today?

Mr. Doyle: USGS is a science agency for the Department of Interior. We have a long, proud tradition, and well-earned reputation of providing objective and credible science and information products. Our origins date back to 1879 when we were chartered by Congress to classify the public lands and to examine geologic structures and mineral resources on the federal domain. And over the next 130 intervening years, we have become the leading with science agency in the nation.

And we are the primary source of data on nation surface and groundwater resources, important information for water managers, and emergency responders. We produce authoritative assessments of energy and minerals, both on land and offshore; you may be familiar with their recent report on unconventional oil and gas off the coast -- in Alaska and in the Arctic.

We issue hazard warnings for earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and we also conduct research on wildlife diseases and ecosystem services. And we serve as the premier civilian mapping agency, noted also for our range of products, as topographic maps.

We have tremendous strength in terms of our integrated sciences. We have modeling capabilities and we have our long-term monitoring networks that we're able to bring to bear to address some of the natural resource issues that are facing this country. We provide important science information and products to policymakers and resource managers in the department that demonstrate our relevancy to their work.

Mr. Morales: So that's a very broad mission. Could you give us a sense of the scale at the USGS in terms of how it's organized, size of its overall budget perhaps number of employees, and how you're dispersed across the country?

Mr. Doyle: Sure. We have approximately 8,500 employees -- 1, 800 located at our headquarters in Reston, Virginia, and 7,200 employees that are located in our field offices across the nation. We have an office in every state. Our budget is about $1.4 billion, 400 of which monies that we receive from cooperators and other folks that we do work on their behalf.

As a science organization, we are located near colleges and universities where we have an opportunity to take -- have mutual benefit to share resources with students, professors, and the physical laboratories. We use approximately 250 emeritus scientists. These are people who have retired from the agency but wish to continue to do their science work, to share their institutional knowledge and expertise with the scientists who work -- continue to work at the agency.

And we utilize about 2,500 volunteers, sort of, citizen scientists, and we have about -- anywhere from 1,500 to 2,000 contractors and they work for us to help complement our career workforce.

Mr. Morales: So Bob, with this broad overview of the organization, could you tell us a bit more about your specific role as deputy director and what are your specific responsibilities and duties?

Mr. Doyle: Well, our primary role is to focus on internal operations, make sure the buses run, so to speak. Try to make sure that the things are running efficiently and effectively and there we have a system of accountability to ensure that our goals and objectives are accomplished.

Mr. Suryavanshi: So with respect to these responsibilities and duties what would you say are your three most significant challenges that you have faced in your position and how have you addressed these challenges?

Mr. Doyle: I would say the biggest challenges I had was when I first came aboard about 4 years ago was to restore physical integrity to the financial operations. The USGS was in a position where they were unable to get an opinion on their financial statements.

We had some problems in internal operations so my task was to try to restore the credibility to fiscal operations and -- brought in some new people. We made some investments in the financial operations. We hired some new folks. We changed some of our business practices.

We engaged the senior leadership in the organization, engaged the employees to get them to understand and appreciate that financial integrity was their responsibility as much as it was for the administrative folks. And so it was my view that they should be treating administration and financial matters with the same degree of integrity and transparency that they do with their science projects.

Mr. Morales: I understand that you started your federal career back with HUD. Could you tell us a bit about your career and what brought you over to the USGS?

Mr. Doyle: Well, I started with federal service about 35 years ago, GS-13 equal opportunity specialist with the Department of Health and Urban Development, and then over the next 15 years I operated in a number of different positions in the administrative field on budget, finance, and procurement, the human capital, property, and IT.

And so after 15 years at HUD, I decided to take a position with the Department of Interior and I served in the executive capacity within Interior with the bureau -- first with the Bureau Mines, and then later worked with the Bureau of Land Management, and now, I'm currently working with the U.S. Geological Survey.

Mr. Morales: That's great. So Bob, as you, sort of, reflect back on the 35 years of federal service and the various departments and bureaus that you've worked for, how have these experiences prepared you for your current leadership role and how has it shaped your management approach and your leadership style?

Mr. Doyle: Well, I would have to say that I having worked through all the major administrative functional areas, gave me a good appreciation of the governance process that exists within government, across government, within the department, and that knowledge is very helpful in trying to craft strategies for getting things done.

I have had opportunities to take on some very challenging and difficult assignments, taught me how to make some tough decisions. When you serve as the deputy of any agency you have to be willing to say "No." And I've also, you know, worked in a variety of leadership positions at other agencies where you are forced to establish your priorities. You have to learn to where to focus your energies.

Mr. Morales: What is the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy? We will ask Robert Doyle, the deputy director of the USGS to share with us when the conversation about management continues on The Business of Government Hour.

(Intermission)

Mr. Morales: Welcome back to The Business of Government Hour. I'm your host, Albert Morales, and this morning's conversation is with Robert Doyle, deputy director of the U.S. Geological Survey. Also joining in our studios from IBM is Kunal Suryavanshi.

Bob, I understand that in 2007, the USGS developed a science strategy, outlining the major natural science issues facing the nation in the next decade. Could you elaborate on this science strategy, and its implications specifically, to what extent does the new strategy better address complex environmental challenges through a systems-based approach?

Mr. Doyle: Well, the new strategy outlines areas where natural sciences can be -- make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the nation. It's a 10-year forward look for the bureau and it gives us some indication of future direction in growth; put together a team of scientists and ask them to do a rigorous assessment of our current science goals and priorities and to identify global trends and national priorities.

And we also asked them to formulate a plan that would build on the existing strengths of the agencies and to challenge us to better integrate the full breadth and depth of our science and our information capabilities.

So the focus of this strategy falls into six thematic areas; climate variability and change, which helps us clarify the record in assessing the consequences; a water census, for quantifying, forecasting and securing fresh water for America's future; energy and minerals, provide scientific foundation for resource security, environmental health, economic vitality and land management. Also have hazards risk and resiliency assessment program ensuring for us a long-term health and wealth for the nation.

Human health is also identified as a theme where we are challenged to develop a system and a process that identifies environmental risks to public health in America. And the final thing deals with the understanding of the ecosystems, and predict an ecosystems change to ensure that the nation's economic and environmental future is secure.

These are thematic areas that represent complex, multi-scale challenges, challenges to which the USGS is uniquely positioned to apply the fundamental understanding of natural processes related to geology, hydrology, biology and geography in a variety of comprehensive, coherent systems approach for addressing these challenges.

Mr. Morales: So the first five, I think, I understand a bit but the last one, ecosystems -- could you tell us a little more what is an ecosystem and why have you focused on understanding these?

Mr. Doyle: Well, ecosystems are viewed as the life support system for us. An ecosystem provides important services for sustaining human life, including fresh air, fresh water, soils, carbon sequestration, and pollinators for crops to name a few.

Ecosystems are generally self-sustaining. However, they can reach a certain threshold beyond which it is unable to repair itself. So USGS, with its multidisciplinary science, is in a unique position to provide a holistic view and a sound understanding of the ecosystems and ecological processes so that wise management can prevent crossing those thresholds.

Mapping, monitoring, modeling and understanding ecosystems is important for informing resource managers in their challenge of balancing land use and land change issues within human needs.

Mr. Morales: So going back to the first one on climate, we are beginning to see how the climate seems to influence every aspect of our life here on earth. Could you elaborate on USGS' effort to deepen and expand the climate science research? Specifically, how is USGS contributing to the global discussion on climate change and how are you supporting decision makers in this area?

Mr. Doyle: Well USGS scientists have spent decades conducting research and collecting information on climate change and its effect on ecosystems and its implication for resource managers.

The Department of the Interior is responsible for management of one in every five acres of land in this country. They have a significant interest on how climate change influences, it's just too much of responsibilities.

As climate predictions are made, USGS scientists can use their understanding of how ecosystems function, to predict how ecosystems will change in a response, allowing resource managers to develop adoption or mitigation strategies for protecting wildlife such as ducks that rely on water or food produced by the ecosystem.

This year, the USGS is engaged in developing a Climate-Effects Network that will serve as a early warning system for resource managers and policy makers, so that they can identify problems before they become chronic or costly.

Well, the debate and the discussions of climate change that occur have many dimensions to it. Our focus has more been on the effects and we will be trying to develop adoption and mitigation strategies that can be used by our resource managers so that we can preserve and protect the resources on our land.

Mr. Suryavanshi: Now Bob, it's my understanding that energy and mineral resources are the backbone of human food supplies, economies and national security. Would you tell us about the USGS' efforts to broaden its energy and mineral resource research? Specifically, what are the key strategic areas that this agency will focus over the next decade in energy and mineral resource research and how will that benefit the United States and resource management?

Mr. Doyle: The U.S. is the largest user of mineral commodities and energy resources in the world. And our economy and our standard of living depend on them. Because many of these resources are imported from trading partners around the world, it's important for us to understand the domestic and global supplies, distribution, use, and their future needs.

As directed by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, over the past four years, the USGS has been studying the resource potential of oil and gas on public lands. In our research plans, where we will be looking at alternative energy sources, we're looking at things like thermal energy, oil shale, wind energy, solar energy -- lot of alternatives besides the petroleum based oil and gas that we have today.

USGS research will be broadened to contribute to the national discussion of our future natural resource security, environmental effects of resource development, economic strength of the nation and management of national resources on public lands.

Mr. Suryavanshi: It's my understanding that domestic geothermal resources have the potential to provide significant amounts of clean, renewable, and reliable energy to the United States. Could you tell us about the USGS' assessment of these conventional, moderate and high temperature geothermal resources and if you can add, what are some of the major technical challenges for increased geothermal development?

Mr. Doyle: Well, without question the nation's energy demands will continue to grow. It is estimated that the United States will need to increase its electric power generating capacity 40 percent to 50 percent over the next 20 years. Geothermal energy is an alternative source available to partially satisfy this increase in demand.

We are currently conducting assessment of moderate and high temperature resources on public lands and the report is due later this year. This will be the first comprehensive assessment in 30 years regarding geothermal resources.

However, since 1979 the technology for power production increased dramatically. For example, the expansion of temperature range of geothermal systems capable of electric power generation makes low and moderate temperature systems more viable. And then, there's enhanced geothermal systems and techniques that create an opportunity to expand existing geothermal reservoirs and capabilities through hydrographic fracturing and other advanced techniques.

We are working collaboratively in our efforts with the Department of Energy, Bureau of Land Management and other federal agencies along with the national labs, universities, state and local agencies and even the geothermal industry.

Mr. Suryavanshi: Bob, recent events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and natural fires have resulted in hundreds of deaths, disruption to commerce and destruction of homes and critical infrastructure.

Now, I understand that a core element of the USGS mission is to provide scientific information in order to minimize the loss of life and damage to property from these natural disasters.

Could you tell us about your National Hazards, Risk, and Resilience Assessment Program and your efforts to develop a national risk monitoring program?

Mr. Doyle: Well, the natural environment continues to pose risks to society. USGS has a long and respected history of providing relevant and timely information for responding to hazard events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and so forth. We have an extensive network of sensors to model, forecast and detect natural hazard events. We work in collaboration with partners around the world as part of the Global Seismic Network with colleagues, universities as part of the Advanced System Seismic Network and a new National Volcanic Early Warning System.

Science and technology can play an important role in developing a disaster resilient program. National science and technology committee has a subcommittee working on disaster reduction and they have identified six grand challenges for the future: To provide hazard and disaster information where and when it's needed, to understand natural processes that produce hazards, develop strategies and technologies to reduce the impact of extreme events, to reduce the vulnerability of infrastructures, develop standardized methods for communities to measure and assess disasters and to promote risk-wise behavior.

Now, we are currently working with the state of California and the Department of Human Services, the state and local entities, to set up a plan -- planning exercise that will culminate in a November earthquake drill entitled the "Great Shakeout". USGS science and information products will significantly inform the exercise.

One of the objectives of the exercise is to translate regional disasters to a local level using a 7.8 earthquake as a triggering mechanism. We expect to have about 5 million citizens participate in the process and, in fact, we have about 2 million people already signed over the Internet.

The exercise also includes the discussion with Canada and Mexico, to explore cross-border implications and opportunities. And then we plan to have an international conference to be held in Los Angeles, for other mega cities participants to learn more from the exercise.

>Mr. Morales: So Bob, you mentioned networks and sensors, could you tell me a little bit more about what some of the key monitoring networks are and what might you be doing to enhance these networks and expand their capabilities?

Mr. Doyle: Well, the networks provide for us the ability to predict and characterize a hazard and provide information for response and recovery efforts. And USGS operates several critical hazard monitoring networks. Our key monitoring networks include the Global Seismic Network, the Advanced Network for Seismic Systems, Stream Gauges, geomagnetic observatory laboratories and satellites. The Global Seismic Network will be expanded to about a 150 stations worldwide, enabling USGS to report on recent earthquakes such as in China, within minutes.

And then in Afghanistan -- with the rebuilding that's occurred there has enabled us to restore an active site for the network to provide a critical coverage in a disaster prone area. We are also expanding our Advanced Network for Seismic Stations, with additional sensors and additional locations. We are upgrading the software to greatly improve our earthquake notification, especially within at-risk urban areas. And we are speaking to partners to improve the quality of regional networks, for example, with California Tech, the University of Nevada, and St. Louis University.

And we are developing a National Volcanic Early Warning System to adequately monitor all high risk volcanoes in the United States, to alert communities at risk as well as aviation at risk to the ash cloud formation. And we also have on the drawing boards a launch of Landsat 8 replace aging fleet of satellites, Landsat 5 and Landsat 7. I'll mention the Landsat 5 has been up and running for about 25 years and Landsat 7 is on its 10th year, and both are well beyond their projected life.

Mr. Morales: Now Bob, you talk about networks and partners but just to clarify and you mentioned some universities, partners can also include other governments around the world?

Mr. Doyle: Yes. So, a lot of the networks are really a collaborative effort that it is a good example of countries reaching together, working together to benefit the world as a whole. And so, we have members in the Global Seismic Network from countries in Iran, in China, here in the United States and Europe, all of us is certainly concerned about the hazards that are generated by earthquakes and all are interested in sharing information across countries so that we can all learn and understand the national -- natural phenomena of earthquakes and try to better advance understanding of that event.

Mr. Morales: I understand that over 75 percent of the declared federal disasters are related to flooding. And certainly we are in the middle of hurricane season and that's top-of-mind to a lot of folks, and obviously we saw a flooding hit the Midwest very hard this year.

Could you tell us about USGS' floods response efforts in this past year, and what are some of the lessons learned during this past, this past year?

Mr. Doyle: Well, the USGS plays an important role in providing real-time information to flood responders. As you said, this past year the Midwest was hit particularly hard by winds and torrential rains. We have a stream gauging network that provides valuable real time data to the national weather organization who forecast potential flood areas. The network consists of over 7,000 gauges and we have dedicated staff to install temporary gauges where coverage is needed during the hazard event.

We also have historical river data that proves to be invaluable to understand the implications of increased volume of water, to better deal -- and the implications for communities in an ecological environment. Recent preparations for Gustav and Hannah, we've had extensive communications and coordination with assigned centers in the affected areas, identifying where additional sensors in the network needed to be added so that while we have 7,000 sensors in permanent locations depending on the hazard and where it occurs, we also have mobile units, and we also have temporary sensors that we put in place to provide us some information.

And I should mention that a lot of this information is telemitted and available, real-time over the Internet. And so, for example, if anybody wanted to see the readings on a particular gauge all they needed to do is go to USGS, www.usgs, and look at our water watch website, and they'll be to see the volume of water and the tide that's occurred in a particular time and be able to see how that measurement compares to historical records and so they get a sense of how high there the water levels are, and how fast the water is flowing. The National Weather Service is extremely reliant on that information because they're the ones responsible for making forecast for a flooding, but they greatly rely on some of the basic data that our scientists provide to them.

Mr. Morales: That's fantastic. How is the U.S. Geological Survey using innovative technology to succeed? We will ask Robert Doyle, deputy director of the USGS to share with us when the conversation about management continues on The Business of Government Hour.

(Intermission)

Mr. Morales: Welcome back to The Business of Government Hour. I'm your host Albert Morales, and this morning's conversation is with Robert Doyle, deputy director of the U.S. Geological Survey. Also joining us in our conversation from IBM is Kunal Suryavanshi.

Bob I read about how the U.S. health spending is projected to continue to rise reaching almost 20 percent of the GDP by 2015. We talked about how the environment is one of the major determinants of human health. But can you tell us a bit more about USGS' role in environmental health research specifically monitoring the effects of the environment and wildlife on human health?

Mr. Doyle: Environmental health affects to citizens are increasing. The U.S. proposes to provide scientific and monitoring information essential for helping the nation to identify existing and emerging environmental ecosystem health threats. USGS is engage with a broad spectrum of partners in environmental health research. We characterize exposure to potential contaminants and pathogen in air, dust, soil, and other earth materials.

Monitoring and understanding vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, disease that are transmitted between animals and people such as Avian Flu and West Nile virus. We also characterize exposure to chemicals and pathogens in drinking water, food, and recreational waters. And we work with EPA and state, local water authorities to identify and understand the sources and impacts.

Mr. Morales: So along same lines let me transition a bit to water. According to a 2003 U.S. GAO report it said the nation lacked an adequate picture of water-availability at the national, regional, and local level.

Could you tell us a bit about USGS' efforts in this area specifically around the water census which you mentioned earlier and modernizing the stream gauges?

Mr. Doyle: The 21st century brings a new set of water resource challenges for us. Water shortages and water use conflicts have been more common place across the nation -- for irrigation crops, expanding cities, and communities, for energy production, and for environmental health, and species protection under the law.

The last comprehensive water census was concluded in 1978 and much has changed since that time. For our fiscal year 2009 we have proposed, begin in 10-year effort to undertake a water census that informs managers and policymaker as to what is available, where it is located, and what condition it's in.

Knowing our nation's water assets and rates of use on an ongoing basis is crucial to effective water management. So our initiative is a 10-year study of water-flow, storage and use. We also plan to conduct regional studies comparing storages and flows with prior conditions.

We will be collaborating with state and local governments in selected water studies and aquifers as to increase use of new technology in water planning and management. We will be cooperating with states and local entities to improve characterization of the nation's aquifers and we hope to modernize nations 7300 strain gauges and upgrade the technology, to support real-time data reporting, to provide more timely information for better water management, and to stabilize long-term network by reestablishing critical gauges that have been discontinued in the past 2 years.

Mr. Suryavanshi: Now that's a great information, Bob. As you know, innovative and continually evolving technologies have the potential to transform not just science methods, but even the questions that science can ask.

Could you tell us about a few new and evolving technologies that are particularly relevant to the earth sciences? For example, what is the Geographic Information System and how is that critical for integrating the many kinds of data across disciplines?

Mr. Doyle: Well, let me pick up on the Geographic Information System as one. GIS is an information system that integrates data elements in a geographically referenced way. That is its links to a location or a place on earth and it's a framework for understanding the world and applying geographic knowledge to solving problem, guiding management actions and it gives us the ability to visually relate multiple data sets within a geographic contexts as with a map displaying transportation routes, structures, terrains, rives, and streams and elevation. It's valued as a relational tool. It helps us to visualize and see the interaction of data, the cause and effects of actions in one area and how it affects the areas of the system.

There's a whole host of other new technologies out there that we are anxiously looking at and expecting to take advantage of their capabilities -- molecular genetics, nanotechnology, geomicrobiology, molecular technology, environmental census, particularly wireless census, land imaging -- just a whole range of new technologies out there that have an opportunity to really influence the earth sciences and how we do business.

Mr. Suryavanshi: Along similar lines, could you tell us about the National Map 3.0? How does it provide nationally consistent geospatial framework and also what are the key national geospatial initiatives currently underway?

Mr. Doyle: Well, the national map is our vision to the future -- 3.0 is our vision to the future. Our expectation is that we would have a map that is not dynamic rather than static. That we'll have real-time data represented in the map and so that as land changes occur and that information is made available, it is automatically incorporated into the national map.

Then we have streamflow information connected to real-time data reports and so that if the rivers increase in height and flow faster that information gets accurately represented in the map the day that it occurs. And so it's a real time nature that is envisioned as part of the national map.

We also would look up an opportunity to make 3D graphics, an integral part of the map part of the map and that we would give the user of the map the ability to customize, to be able to go screen and pick out a polygon and create their own map and add changes to that map and to do what-if scenarios and change the elevations on the map, to change some of the transportation routes in some of the structures.

Our kids today are experienced with the technology that gives them the ability to do things onscreen and to imagine and to think about things that aren't -- and to ask question why can't it be this way. This would give us the ability to make the map dynamic and allow people to play with it and to imagine and to configure it differently than what it is.

Mr. Suryavanshi: So it acts as modeling or a predictive tool also?

Mr. Doyle: Absolutely. In fact it -- even now the National Map 1.0 is really instrumental in helping to provide the geographic contexts for lot of our studies. It enabled us to see the ecosystems and see the changes that are taken place on the ecosystems and then be able to make some projections about some of the changes that it might be occurring and how they would be represented on the map.

Mr. Suryavanshi: Just changing the topic slightly, Bob. We heard a lot about collaborations and partnerships both across government and with organizations outside the government. What kinds of partnerships are you developing to improve operations or outcomes at USGS?

Mr. Suryavanshi: Just changing the topic slightly, Bob. We heard a lot about collaborations and partnerships both across government and with organizations outside the government. What kinds of partnerships are you developing to improve operations or outcomes at USGS?

Mr. Doyle: Well, indeed on of the strengths that the USGS possess is the network of partner and collaborators available to draw on. The complexities and many of the issues that we face as a nation require that collective and coordinated efforts of participants, national, international, federal, state, local, NGOs and the commercial sectors as well.

Our extensive network of partners enables us to extend our knowledge and expertise and our capabilities. Some of the more significant partnerships that we have been engaged in, our partnership network in hazards arena is a good illustration to work in collaboration with other federal agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security and FEMA, the Corps of Engineers, NOAA, the National Weather Service, state and local government's, colleges and universities.

Hazard events such as Katrina and Southern California fires, Midwest floods demonstrate the importance of working together, the share of information, coordinate activities, and to capitalize on respective resources and capabilities to best avoid and minimize the loss of life and property.

We have numerous partnerships with the Department of Interior Land Management agencies such as Fish and Wildlife Service and the Bureaus of Land Management, where we provide important science information and products that inform every source management polices and practices as with the strategic habitant conservation efforts or with energy development on public lands.

Bureaus of Land Management is involved, the Fish and Wildlife Service is involved and the State Fish & Game for the State of Wyoming, we have NGOs, we have a National Nature Reserve is involved and we have the University of Wyoming also involved. So it's a tremendous collaborative effort where a lot of participants who have an interest in what's going on, and ultimately if the plan is going to work, it needs the support of the local people -- trying to look at the issue in Wyoming on landscape scale basis, we have individuals site specific oil wells, but it really has an impact on the larger ecosystem.

And so this is our efforts to try to look at things on a larger scale and to engage partners to join us in that effort and to share of information across organizational lines at the federal, state, and local level.

Mr. Morales: That's great. So Bob, I want to go back to your science strategy and talk a little bit about human capital. With the broad mission and program that you've described, how do you envision USGS' human capital needs evolving over the next couple of years? And specifically, what are doing to attract to maintain a high quality of technical and professional workforce to meet some of these future challenges?

Mr. Doyle: Well, the rate of attrition associated with the much touted baby-boomer bubble hasn't burst us but it certainly has seeped a bit. And what we having been seeing over time is that rather than having abrupt high rate attrition, that people have been slowly leaving the workforce.

So it is a challenge for us in terms to trying to replace the institutional knowledge and the expertise, but it is also an opportunity for us. An opportunity with the science strategy that would be -- take us in new directs, requiring new skills and new capabilities. And so the attrition gives us the opportunity to hire those capabilities to pursue those new directions.

Now a critical aspect to realizing our science goals is an effective human capital strategy for recruiting, develop, and retaining, and managing a highly skilled, flexible, motivated, and diverse workforce. Our major concerning challenge is maintaining the institutional memory as the workforce retires.

We have above 40 percent of our workforce eligible over the next 5 years. But our workforce planning is an integral part of our 5-year program planning process. In 2004 we developed a comprehensive suite of workforce planning tools and guidelines for evaluating both current and future workforce needs.

We currently make extensive use of the student -career-education program, which has proven to be a good source for future employees. And we also maintain an active postdoctoral program both internally within the survey called the Mendenhall Doctoral Program and we also take advantage of the National Academy of Sciences', mentoring program. I think for us to maintain and attract highly qualified talent, I think the answer is in creating a rewarding working environment where employees are valued.

Faster challenges, and interesting, and meaningful work and afford the employees an opportunity to excel, to be recognized, and to be rewarded, to give the employees the freedom to experiment and the latitude to fail -- one that is capitalized on the flexible workplace route that OPM has put in place over the last 3 or 4 years.

Flexi-place, telecommute, work-week alternatives, job sharing et cetera -- and it's important for us also as a science agency to invest in technology and equipment in the creative development of our employees.

I think, if we do all of that and I think we will set ourselves to be able to continue to attract and retain the talent that we will need to carry out the science strategy that we have before us.

Mr. Morales: Now you mentioned knowledge management, and in the last year we have seen that many federal agencies and communities have launched their own versions of Wikipedia or are using blogs.

Could you talk about efforts within USGS to leverage these new societal networking ideas and technologies and how can these tools support your mission and operations?

Mr. Doyle: USGS employees have been strong proponents of social networks and other new technologies that facilitate communication within and across our organization.

Our new generations of employees bring with them a familiarity and a comfort level with electronic information sharing. They have incorporated all of this into there daily life with family and friends. And so introducing these new technologies in the workplaces has been logically and welcomed addition to our communication tools.

Podcasts are frequently used and integrated into our websites. They enable us to reach a new audience in new ways -- they are new, popular way to communicate with the public. And I would invite you both to take advantage of accessing our website, USGS, www.usgs and to click on some of the latest podcasts that we have and that would include the hurricane activities that is occurring in the Gulf of Mexico as well as some thought about the great Shakeout exercise that will be occurring in California in November.

Convening information in nonscientific teams -- using technologies will help us to convey science in non technical terms so that the relevancy of a word can be easily understood by the general public to convey technical topics and essential points in a citizen-friendly science discussions. Our latest statistics on our web show that 1.8 million people have already accessed our sites to take advantage of the podcasts that we've made available.

We also make extensive use blogs which have become and accepted and an effective tool for informally communicating information on a range of issues or for simply sharing observations. It has become a useful tool for rapid dissemination of information, to get a general message out quickly.

We are also using Wikis. We have found them to be invaluable to us to keep our staff informed and up to date on various issues -- and have been very helpful to us in planning process in terms of with 7,300 employees located in our field location across the country with an office in every state -- sometimes it gets difficult to engage them in a process and invite them in and make them feel a part of the process.

But the Wiki technology gives us the ability to solicit comments and we found that to be very effective in some of our planning documents where we invited them to comment on and participant in that process. And so it's simply another way for us to extend their communication tools and to make it easier and more effective for us to get the message out and to increase the understanding across the organization.

Mr. Morales: That's great. Now back on the podcast, I'd just like to also let the listeners know that this very interview will be available on our podcast. So, we can sort of extend the favor there.

What does the future hold for the USGS? We will ask Robert Doyle, deputy director of the U.S. Geological Survey to share with us, when the conversation about management continues on The Business of Government Hour.

(Intermission)

Mr. Morales: Welcome back to our final segment of The Business of Government Hour. I am your host, Albert Morales. And this morning's conversation is with Robert Doyle, Deputy Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. Also joining us in our conversation from IBM is Kunal Suryavanshi.

Bob, as you have noted many of the environmental challenges discussed transcend the national boundaries. So to that end, could you tell us a bit more about how the role that USGS plays in international efforts and issues that seek to develop a global understanding of the earth systems?

Mr. Doyle: The USGS has an active international program in part to provide technical systems to foreign countries and to collaborate with scientists around the world to further acknowledge in understanding of its science. We have many international arrangements with the United Nations, with the group, with observations, with the State Department. We work with a voluntary disaster assistance program. We have projects ongoing now with the reconstruction of Afghanistan. We just participated in International Geologic Congress and we are also active in the Circum-Pacific Council.

Indeed, some of the many national and international resource issues transcend jurisdictional boundaries -- issues such as SARS, avian influenza, climate variability, sea level rise, invasive species, drought, volcanic corruptions -- I could go on and on. Collaboration of partnerships are the cornerstone for conducting a wide variety of science and information activities to address these trans-boundary issues.

Let me give a couple of examples here -- I mentioned earlier the Circum-Arctic study that we had undertaken on undiscovered oil and gas for the purpose of assessing what is out there in the Arctic region. And it's part of a larger global study to assess the petroleum basins using standardized and consistent methodology and protocols.

We also have done a study of gas hydrates in 2002. We conducted a gas production test in Mackenzie Delta of the Canadian Arctic, an area of high concentration of gas hydrates. And we conducted by an international consortium of USGS, The Geologic Survey of Canada, Department of Energy, Japan, India, Germany, and Industry Representatives.

We've also done a Global Minerals Resource Assessment. Eight years of cooperative international effort to assess the world's undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources and to develop the methodology for an assessment, new models, and predictive tools for analysis and application of global assessments. We're also very active in International Polar Year Activities and established and operate physical and biological monitoring networks through scientific collaboration within and outside the United States with scientists around the world.

Mr. Suryavanshi: And Bob, I understand that the USGS is participating in an extensive aerial hyperspectral survey of Afghanistan. How can these same advanced techniques be applied to find new and underutilized minerals and resources in our own country?

Mr. Doyle: As part of the U.S. effort to support the reconstruction of Afghanistan, USGS scientists have provided information about the potential energy, minerals, and water resources, important to the development and stability of the Afghanistan economy. A major component of the efforts includes the collaborative effort with NASA and DOD to acquire a hyperspectral infrared imagery of Afghanistan. Hyperspectral imaging allows us to determine the actual composition of rock and minerals at the surface of the earth from a high altitude aircraft traveling a 100 miles an hour.

This technology in data collection process has been an integral part of the USGS Minerals Program for many years. But this is the first time the coverage has been obtained on a national scale. Our work with Afghanistan is also a part of an effort to build capacity in Afghanistan and to train the Afghanistan scientists in the application and use of hyperspectral data.

The Afghanistan experience will allow GS to develop algorithms and data handling techniques to facilitate manipulation of a very large data set. This will allow development of more advanced techniques that can be used to greatly improve resource investigations here in the United States.

This effort in Afghanistan provides a good example of how technology developed by the USGS can be transferred to a distant problem which then feeds back experience to allow the improvement and expansion of a domestic program, for example, applications in Alaska.

This technology is highly accurate and precise and would be especially helpful and flying over the remote areas such as the mountains and wilderness areas of Alaska.

Mr. Morales: So Bob, let me transition to the future of now. Could you give us a sense of some of the key trends that will impact the U.S. Geological Survey in say the next 3 to 5 years?

Mr. Doyle: Well, I would say certainly from a scientific perspective, our science strategy has identified six themes that we think over the next 10 years or more -- provide a good indication of where the future priorities and future focus need to be.

But I would also say that and from the technological standpoint, we see that real-time nature of data demands is going to continue to grow, is going to be an increasing public expectation for current information.

We also see that the public is going to demand free and open access to science data. You maybe aware that the secretary just made a decision recently that the entire archive of Landsat data information that we have been collecting since the 1970s would be made available at no cost over the Internet for the public. And to put that in context, people talked about tetrabytes of data. Now we are talking about petrabytes of data -- there's a tremendous amount of information.

And the challenge will be I think for the -- in the future for all data users is how would we make that information available in a cost-effective way so that people can access it and make use of it. I think that it will have increasing use of modeling and predictive capabilities to better understand the potential impacts of emerging societal issues.

Mr. Morales: So Bob, you certainly have had a very successful career over the past 35 years. As you reflect back on your experiences, what advice might you give to someone out there who perhaps is thinking about a career in public service and perhaps a career in the National Sciences?

Mr. Doyle: Well, based on my experience, I found the public service to still be a noble calling. I found it very satisfying and rewarding personally and a great opportunity for any individual to challenge themselves. The government is a big employer. There are over 2 million jobs in the government. The professions are many. So there's a great opportunity to engage and to be challenged and to have an opportunity to make a difference. And public service affords a rewarding an opportunity to learn more about your government and to get involved n very high levels with responsible work.

So I would encourage any individual out there, that's considering work with the government to think about coming in and sharing and better understanding how the government operates and look for opportunities to make a difference.

Mr. Morales: That's a wonderful advice. Thank you. Bob, unfortunately we have reached end of our time today. I want to thank you for fitting us into your busy schedule.

But more importantly Kunal and I would like to thank you for your dedicated service to our country across the many roles that you've held across the federal government.

Mr. Doyle: Well, thank you both for the opportunity to share with you stories about the USGS and about its capabilities and its science, history. As an organization the USGS certainly has strong, proud history and tradition to do in quality science and science that's important and meaningful to this nation.

I certainly want to thank all of the employees of the USGS who have worked so hard to maintain that reputation and continued to do a quality work. I'd I like to close with a little story that I want to share with you.

Back in 2006, the USGS was a recipient of an award for the national Partnership for Public Service. They received the Service to American Medal for community service. And it originated out of the events that occurred with Katrina, down in the Gulf of Mexico. And like many federal agencies, the people who live down there and worked down there will remember the communities and they were affected by that national tragedy.

Many of our employees used the boats that we have down there, used the equipment to participate in the searching rescue and activities and you might recall that. During that effort, the - rescue teams were somewhat frustrated in their efforts because the high-water tended to obliterate the street signs, covered the street addresses, destroyed many of the landmarks.

And so the rescue teams that were in there, many of them from out of state, were not familiar with the area and they had the regular maps that they were using to try to locate people who had called in on their cell phones -- people who were in attics that were trapped, people who were on rooftops -- and they gave them street addresses, which didn't help because the normal maps were not functional.

But our cartographers were able to take those maps and convert them to latitude and longitude so that the rescuers were able to get the calls that were coming in on their cell phones and using GPS technology were able to give them a latitude and longitude location. And so the Coastguard and other rescuers were able to key off of that. It's a very small example that I think of how science can help, improve and make a difference, can improve the quality of the life of people.

And I was there that night and receiving the award on behalf of other survey and I remember the eve in the event remarked into my wife saying that I was proud to be a federal servant. Proud to hear people talk about the contribution we made as public servants to make things a little bit better.

And so I think that's symptomatic of the kind of people that we have working at the survey and the kind of work they do and the kind of contributions they can make to improve the lives of people in this country.

Mr. Morales: That's a wonderful story and certainly puts a sharp point to your message around call to service and federal service. Thank you very much.

This has been The Business of Government Hour featuring a conversation with Robert Doyle, Deputy Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. My co-host has been Kunal Suryavanshi, Associate partner in IBM's Federal Civilian in District Practice.

As you enjoy the rest of your day, please take time to remember the men and women of our armed and civil services abroad who may not be able to hear this morning's show on how we're improving their government, but who deserve our unconditional respect and support.

For The Business of Government Hour, I'm Albert Morales. Thank you for listening.

Announcer: This has been The Business of Government Hour. Be sure to join us every Saturday at 9:00 a.m. And visit us on the web at businessofgovernment.org. There you can learn more about our programs, and get a transcript of today's conversation. Until next week, it's businessofgovernment.org.

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James Cason interview

Friday, December 14th, 2007 - 20:00
Phrase: 
Mr. Cason is the Associate Deputy Secretary for the Department of the Interior
Radio show date: 
Sat, 12/15/2007
Guest: 
Intro text: 
Financial Management; Managing for Performance and Results; Human Capital Management; Collaboration: Networks and Partnerships...
Financial Management; Managing for Performance and Results; Human Capital Management; Collaboration: Networks and Partnerships
Complete transcript: 

Originally Broadcast December 15, 2007

Arlington, VA

Welcome to The Business of Government Hour, a conversation about management with a government executive who is changing the way government does business. The Business of Government Hour is produced by The IBM Center for The Business of Government, which was created in 1998 to encourage discussion and research into new approaches to improving government effectiveness. You can find out more about The Center by visiting us on the web at businessofgovernment.org.

And now, The Business of Government Hour.

Mr. Morales: Good morning. I'm Albert Morales, your host, and managing partner of The IBM Center for The Business of Government.

Today, the U.S. Department of the Interior has evolved into the principal federal conservation agency, managing the protection of many of the nation's special natural, cultural and historic places. With us this morning to discuss his organization's leadership in conserving habitats, species, lands and waters, while effectively managing its fiscal resources, is our special guest, James Cason, Associate Deputy Secretary at the U.S. Department of the Interior.

Good morning, Jim.

Mr. Cason: Good morning.

Mr. Morales: Also joining us in our conversation is Steve Seike, director in IBM's federal civilian industry.

Good morning, Steve.

Mr. Seike: Good morning, Al.

Mr. Morales: Jim, perhaps you could share with us the sense of the history and mission of the U.S. Department of the Interior. When was it created, and what is its mission today?

Mr. Cason: The Department of the Interior is a wonderful organization. It has a very broad mission within the United States. Somewhat unusually, when we think about the Interior, it's really the Department of the Outside as opposed to the Interior, because most of the agencies that are involved within the Interior manage the outdoors within the United States.

For example, within the Department of the Interior, we have the National Park Service, the National Fish and Wildlife Organization, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Bureau of Land Management, Indian Affairs, and a number of other agencies, and collectively, those agencies manage about one out of every five acres in the United States. We have wonderful vistas, watersheds, critical and endangered species habitat. We manage coal mining, oil and gas developments; we manage water, and water development and distribution. There's a host of programs within the Department that have direct impacts upon the lives of many people within the United States.

The Department of the Interior was created back in 1849, and over time has had an evolvement of its mission and an accretion of duties. And today, it has a huge duty in both preserving our environment and conserving our environment with our partners, and it also has a very large contribution into the economic fabric of United States through energy and minerals development, through timber harvesting, grazing and a number of other things.

Mr. Morales: So with such a broad mission, can you perhaps give us a sense of the scale of the organization in terms of the size of its budget, number of employees, and the geographic footprint?

Mr. Cason: The Department of the Interior is a pretty large organization within the federal family. We have about 70,000 employees that are scattered in large part all over the world, but mostly in the United States, western half of the United States. We have about 2,400 offices of various sorts: some very large ones, some very small ones. We are typically a rural-based organization, because we do manage the outdoors so much, but we span many time zones in the world. Some of our interests like Insular Affairs, we have responsibility for Guam and American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands for example. And then we also have many of the lands in the West.

Mr. Seike: Jim, now that you've provided us with the sense of the larger organization, perhaps you could tell us more about your area and specific role within Interior. What are your specific responsibilities? And can you tell us how your area is organized, the size of your staff and budget, and how it supports the mission of the Department?

Mr. Cason: Well, that's an interesting question. The position I hold at the Department of the Interior is called the Associate Deputy Secretary. On an organizational chart, I report directly to the Deputy Secretary of the Interior, and that person is named Lynn Scarlett. Lynn is the number two person within the Department, and the number one person is obviously the Secretary. The Secretary is a cabinet officer, his name is Dirk Kempthorne. I report directly to the Deputy Secretary, and my role overall within the Department of the Interior is to assist the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary to manage the affairs of the Department.

In terms of immediate staff, I'd have to give you two answers on that. One answer is in an informal way, the entire staff of the Department is part of my portfolio and managing along with the Secretary's office. In another way, I also have another duty, that has been assigned to me by the Secretary, and that's to be the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Management and Budget. And in that capacity, I have a staff of several thousand people who are focused on the task of providing administrative services, policy services, framing the budget and a number of other things that support the broader mission of the Department of the Interior.

Mr. Seike: Well, it sounds like your hands are pretty full.

Mr. Cason: They are.

Mr. Seike: Let me ask you another question about responsibilities and duties. What would you see as the top three challenges that you face in your position, and how have you addressed those challenges?

Mr. Cason: Well, within my position, I would say it's a mix of a couple of things, and what I mean by that is, I have for me personally a task within the Department of the Interior that is a huge challenge, which is managing what we call the "Cobell litigation."

Cobell is a litigation and it was filed by individual Indians against the Department about the stewardship of the Department over the last 100 years of trust assets. It's been a very contentious litigation. We've spent hundreds of millions of dollars in working on this issue, and we've had extensive periods of time in court managing that issue, and I have the principal responsibility for the Department to manage the programs within the Department that are implicated by the Cobell litigation, and to work with the Department of Justice and the courts on this issue.

Secondly, I would say the next major challenge really is I would say coordination among the various parts of the Department. Many of the things that we do cross organizational lines, and it requires someone to coordinate those activities so that the right hand knows what the left hand is doing. Let me give you an example with our fire program. Within our fire program, we have several agencies that participate in our fire program, and that's the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service. And when we have fire issues that involve policy or deployment of resources, we need to make sure everybody is on the same page about what we are doing and why we are doing it.

We have a number of those types of things that involve initiatives of the Department that cross the lines within the Department, or we have problems that involve several parts of the organization, so that's a piece of it. And then the final thing that I think is the biggest challenge is communication among all of the parts of the Department, and that's to make sure everybody knows where we are trying to head, and I'll give you an example like goals and objectives.

It's very beneficial if everyone from the Secretary down to the lowest manager understands what the mission is, what our priorities are, what we are trying to get done, and that's a constant effort you have to go through to make sure that everybody is pulling in the traces in the same direction.

Mr. Morales: Now Jim, you've spent some time at the Department and in government. Could you describe your career path for our listeners? How did you get started?

Mr. Cason: Well, using the term "career path" may be an anomaly here. I've had a number of interesting jobs over my working lifetime. I've spent about half of my working life in government, and half of it in the private sector, and I've had the opportunity to go back and forth. I started off actually at a very young age of working, I probably started working when I was five or six; I came from a family of itinerant farm laborers. So my family would move with the crops in the western part of the U.S. We would actually live in Missouri during the winter, and in springtime we would go to Southern California and pick crops through California, Oregon, Washington, pick potatoes in Idaho, cut Christmas trees in Colorado, go back to Missouri and winter out.

It was an interesting upbringing, a little bit stressful, because I went to multiple schools each year, and interestingly, the Missouri schools are about two years behind the West Coast schools. So I was going back and forth. And in terms of professional career after college, I worked for a trade association dealing with environmental issues. This particular association was called WETA. That stands for the Western Environmental Trade Association. That organization represented labor in industry and environmental issues.

I also had a stint working in Iran. And I was in Iran shortly before the hostages were taken, or I left shortly before the hostages were taken. So I had the opportunity to watch that Iranian revolution up close and personal. And as it turned out, my entr�e into the federal government happened about that time once I got back from Iran; I actually spent a year as a resident fireman for the U.S. Forest Service, a GS-4 job. And then a friend of mine came back to Washington, went to work for the Bureau of Land Management, called me up one day and said I got this perfect job for you.

And I interviewed for it, came back and became a special assistant to the director of BLM. Moved up to become a Deputy Assistant Secretary, then an acting-Assistant Secretary, went over to the Department of Agriculture, ran the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. Left town for eight years, and then when this administration was elected, I got the phone call that said, gee, this is a really big agency, can you guys come and give me a hand? So I returned to Washington and have been back for six years with this administration.

Mr. Morales: That's a fantastic history. So I'm curious, if you sort of tie all that together, how have these experiences prepared you for your current leadership role and sort of shaped and formed your management style?

Mr. Cason: It's an interesting thing that when you look at your life's experiences, all of them in one way or another contribute. I find that I developed, at a very young age, a very strong work ethic. And I attribute that to the upbringing I had with my parents and the hard work that we did as a kid. So doing really hard work now, spending long hours doing the things I do is just part of my make-up, and I think that contributed

I came from a very poor upbringing, so the reaching out to individuals, to understand and be empathetic about their needs, is really important. And one of the areas that's been very beneficial to me is I had a couple of years as the acting-Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs during this administration. And there's lots of really poor people in Indian country, and it gave me an opportunity to be empathetic with them. And in terms of management style, I've had the opportunity, now that I'm over 50, to have managed a long time and to experiment with what works and what doesn't.

And what I find as helpful in my capacities is that most times, most people who work for you want to do a good job. And they also want to be part of the process. And what I found through my experience is that if you give people an opportunity to be part of the solution, to be part of getting things done, their active participation is a lot more effective in extending your capabilities, and then you have a workforce environment where people are energized and positive about what they wanted to do.

So I find that in my capacity -- though at one point and another I have hundreds of dozens of people, dozens or hundreds or thousands that work for me -- what I try to do is actually give very few orders and actually work collaboratively with the management team to agree upon what we need to do, and then charge them to go do it.

Mr. Morales: That's great.

How is the Department of the Interior integrating budget and performance information? We will ask James Cason, Associate Deputy Secretary at the U.S. Department of the Interior, to share with us when the conversation about management continues on The Business of Government Hour.

(Intermission)

Mr. Morales: Welcome back to The Business of Government Hour. I'm your host, Albert Morales, and this morning's conversation is with Jim Cason, Associate Deputy Secretary at the U.S. Department of the Interior.

Also joining us in our conversation from IBM is Steve Seike.

Jim, let's talk for a moment about the PMA, or the President's Management Agenda. Budget and performance integration lie at the heart of ensuring both that the strategic allocation and efficient use of funds are kept in check. Could you tell us about your Department's effort to get to green for budgeting and performance integration, and how has your organization expanded the use of financial data to inform its management decision-making process?

Mr. Cason: That's a great question. I think I'd like to start by backing up just a little bit. I would imagine that a lot of readers don't even know what the President's Management Agenda is. And basically, there is another side of the President and the White House that a lot of people don't get. And that is, the President is very interested in good, solid thoughtful management of government programs. And the President, through a variety of means, has basically said that he wants all of his subordinate managers to do a good job in marshalling their resources, using them effectively, because at the end, all of these monies that we use within the federal government comes from the taxpayer. And he wants to make sure that the taxpayer is getting their money's worth.

The President's Management Agenda is basically a reflection of that thought process, where the President said there are certain things that you have to do in order to run an organization well. You have to manage your money well, you have to manage people well, you have to manage property well, and so our President's Management Agenda is a compilation of several items like that where we have agreements with OMB reflecting the White House's views. We work toward becoming more efficient on those items to make sure that we can actually stand with a straight face and say we're marshalling our resources well.

Within the part of performance integration between budget and performance, the basic process that we go through to deal with that issue is to establish metrics of performance that basically says I'm investing a certain number of dollars in this area, I expect to get a certain performance or result as a result of the money. And then to actively measure that over time. If we find that we are getting more results than we expected, that looks like a pretty good investment, and you can make decisions about whether you do more or less of that. If you find you are not getting the results, it indicates at least there is a possibility of a management problem that needs to be addressed.

The Department of the Interior has been very active at looking at metrics. We've actually developed a Department strategic plan. Within that strategic plan is the mission areas and the metrics we use to measure performance, and we use that on a quarterly basis to make sure that we stay on track.

Mr. Morales: In the last OMB Scorecard, nearly half of the federal agencies received either a yellow or red rating in financial performance. Could you tell us from your perspective why this is such a challenging area for federal agencies, and more importantly, what has your organization done to progress and improve over the last year, so much so that OMB has provided you a green rating in progress?

Mr. Cason: Well, financial management is an important part of the scorecard, and it's also a very difficult area. Let me illustrate with our auditing process. One of the things that we do within the Department of the Interior and across government is we perform an annual audit of how we've managed our appropriated funds. And then at the end of that annual audit, you get a sense of what sorts of material weaknesses do you have in internal controls, how has your financial performance been, how have you managed your money?

It's a difficult process, and when we began this administration, that process usually took six or seven months after the end of a fiscal year before you could close your books. We now do this within the Department of the Interior within 45 days. And we have moved from -- in 2001 when we started the administration, we had 17 material weaknesses in our books, along with a host of other findings, and it looks like moving in a direction for this year that will have none. So we have spent a lot of time and efforts within the Department in our various bureaus to actually make sure that we take the steps necessary to manage our money well.

And let me give you one other example. While I was acting as the Assistant Secretary at Indian Affairs, one of the things we did there is in prior years' audits found that the material weaknesses in part were rooted in Indian Affairs. So one of the things I did is every two weeks, we sat down with the senior management of Indian Affairs, went over our finances, went over how we were dealing with weaknesses in our finances, and made it the management team's responsibility to deal with it. This year, they're coming out with zero material weaknesses. So it's that management process that we go through.

Mr. Seike: That's a fantastic story. Jim, as you know, in addition to improving financial performance, the PMA has an additional initiative for rightsizing the federal government's real estate. The federal government currently owns hundreds of billions of dollars in real property assets, so improving the management of these assets is really important to ensuring that taxpayer dollars are spent wisely and efficiently. Would you tell us more about Interior's real property asset management initiative?

Mr. Cason: Al, as I mentioned earlier, the Department of the Interior manages one out of every five acres in the United States. That's a huge real estate responsibility, not only the real estate itself but improvements on the real estate, because we have 2,400 offices across the country. So what's important to the Department is to make sure that we are being very thoughtful about how we can manage such a large land mass cost-effectively. Some of the things we do in that arena is to block up our properties through sale or in exchange.

If you are familiar with the West, one of the things that happened in opening up the West was tracts of lands were given to railroads across the West to build railroads for transportation. And that ended up fragmenting the land ownership pattern. So you'd have the states had some tracts, then we had some tracts, railroads had some tracts, and then you had other third party private people had tracts. And so one of the things we do to manage effectively is to block up our lands through sale or exchange, because contiguous properties are easier to manage.

Within the confines of what we do have to manage, we are also taking a look at the real estate buildings that we have, to make sure we have a proper inventory -- which we didn't start with, but we have an inventory of our real estate buildings now. We look at the condition of those buildings and we look at the utilization of those buildings so that we are in a position to say if we don't need it, let's dispose off it. If we do need it, if it's in bad repair, let's repair it, and we make sure that we are getting a cost-effective response out of the real estate that we do manage.

Mr. Seike: Your department received an unqualified opinion on its principal financial statements for the seventh consecutive year, demonstrating a clear pattern of financial accountability. First, what is the significance of a clean opinion, and then if you could, follow-up and talk about the keys to successfully achieving a timely and clean opinion?

Mr. Cason: I think the key is first that you make sure it's perceived as the responsibility of the entire organization to manage its finances well, and that's one of the things we put a premium on at the Department. We actively involve our employees and our management team to make sure that everybody is being physically prudent, and that they are following the policies and procedures that we have for managing our money.

The significance of a clean opinion is a reflection by a third party auditor who has no business or ties to the Department, that they've independently looked at our books, looked at how we manage our business, and have drawn a conclusion that we are following policies and procedures, and that we are managing the money well, that it's going to the right place, in the right amounts, and at the right time. So it's very important for us to have that third party assessment to make sure that we are doing a good job, and that we are identifying any problems that are there so they can be fixed in a timely way.

Mr. Morales: Jim, to continue this path of kudos, I understand that once again your Department has also received the CEAR Award, which stands for the Government Accountants Certificate of Excellence in Accountability Reporting. Could you tell us a little bit about this award and its significance?

Mr. Cason: It's an important recognition for the Department about the job that we're doing. The organization, Association of Government Accountants, basically reflects the accounting practices and business within the federal government. And in receiving the Certificate of Excellence in Accountability Reporting award from them, it basically gives us a sense that within the federal family, that we are being recognized for the efforts that we make to manage our money well, and we're being recognized by other people who clearly understand the environment that we operate in within the federal government.

The federal government, as most people understand, is sometimes very complex, we have a lot of rules and regulations and policies that we have to follow. And this award is basically given by people who live in that environment, understand all those things, and who are attesting to the fact that we are doing a good job in that environment.

Mr. Morales: Jim, earlier, you started this segment by describing this administration's focus on being good stewards of the taxpayer dollars. So what steps has Interior taken to better track and manage its costs, and can you tell us a little about the efforts in implementing activity-based costing and management within your Department?

Mr. Cason: Activity-based costing is a technique of cataloging the individual costs that we sustain against some project or initiative. And it gives us the opportunity to begin the process of conducting cost-benefit analysis that should be the driver for our investments in government programs. And just generically, I'd illustrate that that if have to spend a lot of money to get very little benefit, and I find that by saying here's -- I track how much I spent, I look at what results I created, then you say I don't want to spend any more money in that place.

If you go on the other hand, say I created a lot of benefit by a relatively small marginal investment, then that's a kind of area you want to explore more. So we have a host of programs and services within the Department of Interior that are given to us through statute by Congress and through appropriations. And what we use the activity-based costing for is to further our knowledge about the relative costs and benefits that come as a result of our implementing programs, and it allows us to tailor our efforts within the Department to get the biggest bang for the buck for the taxpayer.

Mr. Morales: So in a sense it's some way of quantifying a cost per unit of output and the benefit of that output?

Mr. Cason: Yes, yes.

Mr. Morales: Great.

What is Interior's financial management modernization strategy? We will ask Jim Cason, Associate Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior, to share with us when the conversation about management continues on The Business of Government Hour.

(Intermission)

Mr. Morales: Welcome back to The Business of Government Hour. I'm your host, Albert Morales, and this morning's conversation is with Jim Cason, Associate Deputy Secretary at the U.S. Department of the Interior.

Also joining us in our conversation is Steve Seike, director in IBM's Federal civilian industry practice.

Jim, could you tell us about Interior's Federal Business Management System, or FBMS? Specifically, how key is it to your financial management modernization strategy in meeting the future business needs?

Mr. Cason: The FBMS or Federal Business Management System is hugely important to the future ability of the Department to manage its business. The precursor to committing to FBMS was an assessment of the Department of Interior about how we did our business early in this administration in about 2001.

What we found is that our ability to manage budget programs, finance programs, accounting, property management, acquisition, that within the Department of Interior, even though we have nine bureaus, we had 180 different systems that did those functions. Those systems were not well-integrated, which led to a relatively inefficient way to gather information and provide reports to Congress to integrate our books, get our books closed on time, et cetera.

And having that systems like that were of such an age, we had found that in some of the key systems, that the support contractors would no longer support the systems. So we basically arrived at a time that the legacy systems we have just wouldn't do the job into the future. Our management team got together, looked at this and decided that this was the number one investment we needed to make in the Department so that we could manage our affairs well.

And we've embarked on this project over the last few years to develop an integrated system that basically integrates budget, finance, property acquisition and a number of other subsystems into one common system with a common data warehouse that enables us to have an integrated system that gives us much more cost efficiency, better internal controls, better integrated management of the finances, and enables our management team and Congress to get robust reporting out of our system much more quickly.

Mr. Morales: Let me switch topics for a moment, and switching to something that is very real and in the public eye, and that's wildland fires. In 2006, according to the National Interagency Fire Center, there were almost 90,000 wildland fires that burned about 9.5 million acres. And so far this year, there's been close to 78,000 wildland fires that have burned 9.3 million acres. Could you elaborate on your Department's efforts in coordinating the federal response to wildland fire suppression, and specifically, your collaborative efforts with other entities such as state and local officials to effectively battle these fires?

Mr. Cason: The Wildland Fire Program is an interesting one that is not commonly understood. There is a base program strategy that's important to know. And the base program is, initial attack is the most important time. And the way the strategy gets oriented is across the country without regard to whose land it is.

We first depend upon the local fire departments to go put out the fire. Because if you can catch the fire when it first starts, and you can get it put out when its really small, it's relatively inexpensive to manage. Then, according to this national strategy, if a local fire department doesn't have enough resources to deal with the fire, it gets out of their control, then we have a regional structure in place where other fire companies, other fire equipment and personnel are brought in to help with the fire within that region. And then once the fire gets out of -- exceeds the capacity of that region to deal with, then it becomes a national issue, where on a national basis we use a place called NIFC, or the National Interagency Fire Center, to supply national program assets.

To illustrate, we just had the wildfire situation in Southern California. We had a lot of fires that were out of control, and this process worked exactly the way it was designed. What we had at that time was small fires got out of control. The southern half of California region brought in all its assets. Those were insufficient. They called our NIFC program, and we sent down hundreds -- I think about 2500 federal firefighters -- we arranged for fire engines and fire equipment from all over the West to come to Southern California to battle these fires. And collectively as a team effort, we were able to control the fires within a little over a week, put them out. We still have some assets that are still there.

In terms of communications, this is an area that a lot of players got together and worked well together. There were interagency discussions with Homeland Security, the Department of Interior, the Department of Agriculture, HHS and others, who said we got a problem here. We need to manage this problem. Everybody got into gear. Everybody knew their assignments that had been worked out. FEMA was on the ground. They were doing their thing.

All I've heard out of this is basically rave reviews about how well the system worked this time in making sure that we were taking care of the needs of the people that were affected by those fires.

Mr. Seike: Jim, let's go back for a moment to the President's Management Agenda. Interior continues to maintain green status in human capital management under the PMA. Could you elaborate on your efforts in getting to green? What challenges did Interior have to overcome to get to this level? And what does the Department need to do to sustain a green status rating?

Mr. Cason: There's a couple of things that's important to this answer. Getting to green is basically like the stoplight when you drive. Red is you're not doing so good; yellow is you're making progress but you're not there yet, and green is okay, I'm delivering on the things that I said I would do. So it has that connotation by analogy.

In managing our human capital program under the President's Management Agenda, we as a Department have recognized we had certain challenges that we have to address. And we have certain obligations to our employee workforce. The human capital management part basically involves some key issues. For example, when we survey our Department and we look at our management team, we are in a position that we could lose as much as half of our management team in just the next few years through retirement.

We have an aging workforce within the Department of Interior. And so succession planning for that is an important thing for us to manage our human capital. Because if we don't have well-trained, motivated employees, we won't cost-effectively implement our missions. So succession planning has become a key element within the Department of the things that we do. That leads to recruiting.

We are very actively out looking for new employees as spots open up. In most cases, those positions are advertised competitively, and we search for the best candidates we can bring into the Department. It also implicates training. We have robust training programs within the Department in a variety of ways both put on by Departmental entities and by third-party vendors that we bring in to give specialized training.

So these are examples of the things that we are doing in our human capital area to make sure that over time, we can address the movement of our employees into retirement, backfill them with trained, capable people, develop the management team that we need to lead the Department into the next decade.

Mr. Seike: Jim, the Department consists of a number of large bureaus with their own priorities. They all have their own challenges and workforce needs, and they've got employees working across all parts of the country. Given the size and the diversity of the Department, how do you in your role as the Department's chief human capital officer make sure that there is a corporate approach to workforce planning while at the same time making sure the bureaus still meet their own unique needs?

Mr. Cason: This is a combination of having a systems approach that is well-understood to managing your employee base and being specific about measuring your needs. And let me illustrate. In the management piece, we have a chief human capital officer, that's myself. I have a deputy human capital officer, a person of great experience named Kathleen Wheeler. Within each agency we have a human capital officer that manages this on an agency-by-agency basis. And collectively, we try to marshal a consistent strategy and plan about how we attack this problem.

Within each agency, if you moved to the specific side, the type of people we need in the National Park Service is different than the type of people we need in the Minerals Management Service, because their principal function is managing oil and gas exploration in our outer continental shelf and managing royalty collections of processing versus preserving and conserving scarce properties -- beautiful properties that we have in our national parks.

So what we try to do is have an inventory of the skill mix that we need, figure out how we acquire the people that have the base skills, how we give them training, how we encourage them into management and train them to manage, et cetera. So it's a combination of a good consistent way of doing business that is a management approach, along with a specific assessment of what each bureau or agency needs.

Mr. Morales: So Jim, to continue along this line of the diversity of skill and mission of the folks over at DOI along with the geographical dispersion you mentioned earlier, 2,400 field offices -- how does Interior evaluate HR field performance as well as impart some of the best practices across this broad community? And specifically, what steps are being taken to ensure that HR policies and procedures are documented and communicated in a timely manner, and that implementation is monitored?

Mr. Cason: Well, two things. The Department of Interior, since it's been at its business since 1849, already has a set of policies and procedures in place that is robust, that has been developed over the decades. And what you find in that area is a fairly constant reassessment of what those policies and procedures are based upon your current experience. So you are constantly on the watch for, is this working the way I want it to? And if it's not, okay, fine, we need to change it. I embody a new expectation, communicate that expectation to others.

Let me give you an example here. One of the things that we do in hiring senior executives -- the senior-most people within the federal government are called senior executives on the career side. And one of the more recent things that we worked out with the Office of Personnel Management is the time it was taking agencies to complete the hiring process on senior executives was too long. And so we worked out a different expectation that, from the time you advertise to the time you send a package for clearance to OPM, 90 days. And if you don't get it in 90 days, it's not timely. Start over.

So that sort of thing has prompted changes within our process to make sure we are holding much more tightly to an advertising period of time, how we panel those and review the applications that we get, how we do interviewing, how we process the selection to make sure that we are hitting this expectation. And that happens across the board no matter who we are hiring, that we want to make sure that the process works well. And it if doesn't, we change it.

Mr. Morales: That's great.

What does the future hold for the Department of the Interior? We will ask Jim Cason, Associate Deputy Secretary at the U.S. Department of the Interior, to share with us when the conversation about management continues on The Business of Government Hour.

(Intermission)

Mr. Morales: Welcome back to The Business of Government Hour. I'm your host, Albert Morales and this morning's conversation is with Jim Cason, Associate Deputy Secretary at the U.S. Department of the Interior.

Also joining us in our conversation from IBM is Steve Seike. Jim, one of the administration's key goals is on creating a federal government that is accountable, results-oriented and appropriately aligned with the strategic goals. Could you tell us how federal managers can effectively manage an ever-increasing blended workforce composed of both contractors and federal workers? And what are some of the key differences intrinsic to these two types of people?

Mr. Cason: The federal government has a lot of experience in managing a mix of contractors and employees. Over time, that mix changes depending on circumstances and expectations and opportunities within the market. We, the Department, have hundreds of contractors that we work with on an active basis. It provides us the opportunity to concentrate on our core mission and skills, while bringing in other organizations' contractors who have capabilities that are more mobile and nimble than ours, who have not the same degree of limitations that sometimes we do as a federal government, and who can move quickly to satisfy our needs.

In this particular case, in large part, it's a matter of having money available to get what you need rather than taking all the infrastructure time to go find the employees, set up an organization, set up policies and procedures -- that you can bring in a contractor to do that work much more quickly when it's their business.

So it ends up allowing us to manage much more cost-effectively and in a more timely way to approach the job that way. In the area of competitive sourcing, for example, one of the things we do is test ourselves. And in testing ourselves, we will take discrete programs, study them and make a determination about whether or not we would make that available for the private sector to come in and compete for those jobs.

And one of the things that we found in going through that process is that it helps our staffs to actually sharpen up their business acumen and the results that they deliver for the money that we invest in them, or we find that the private sector can come in and compete better. So it's an important tool for us to do the job well over time.

Mr. Morales: Jim, we've touched a bit upon the topic of collaboration. So I'm curious, what kinds of partnerships are you developing now to improve operations or outcomes at the Department, and how may these partnerships change over time?

Mr. Cason: Collaboration is a really important part of the work that we do, because given that the Department manages one out of every five acres in the United States, we touch in large part lots of lives within the U.S., and that as resources come from our federal lands, we're part of the active marketplace.

The collaboration part is a recognition that we don't stand on our own. We have neighbors where we operate; that states have interest in how we manage our lands; or tribes have interest how we manage their lands; that private sector organizations, environmental groups, private individuals who depend upon our lands care about the decisions we make and how we do what we do. What we try to do in the area of collaboration is to leverage the resources that we have in the maximum way by involving other people in the jobs that we do.

And let me use an example, like volunteers. We have tens of thousands of volunteers who have various interests, like I want to work in a park, or I want to help manage wildlife on a Fish and Wildlife Refuge. And that these people help us leverage the resources we have available to get the missions done, and they can help us do that cost-effectively because we leverage their volunteer time to get a bigger response than we could do by paying for it ourselves.

Mr. Seike: Jim, I'd like to transition now to the future. Can you give our listeners a sense of some of the key issues that will affect CFOs and budget offices government-wide over the next year?

Mr. Cason: I would start with appropriations. The appropriations process has been ongoing for a number of years but it's not entirely stable. This year, for example, our fiscal year '08, which began October 1st, we operated under a continuing resolution because our budget didn't get done. It looks like we're going to have another continuing resolution because the budget is not done. And that resolution probably will run until mid-December. We don't know where it's going to go after that. I think there's going to be, in addition to just the complication associated with not knowing what your financial picture is with any certainty, there's more complications that we would anticipate to come in to our sphere over time.

And that is expectations of how accurately you manage your books, how quickly you can report information out of your books; how you can integrate government information from the lowest level to the top in a time-sensitive way; how you can integrate information together. The implications associated with information technology, that technology is going to change hugely over time and we have to be prepared to accommodate that; software systems that do this work are getting old and dated and need to be replaced and that causes change. So there's a number of challenges that we anticipate coming into the future that we will have to manage, and we're capable of doing that, but it will result in change.

Mr. Seike: Jim, as we look at Interior, what are some of the major opportunities and challenges your organization will encounter in the future, and how do you envision your office will evolve over the next five years?

Mr. Cason: The Department of Interior has a lot of pressures that it has to respond to in the public arena. And let me illustrate it with the degree of litigation that we have with our programs, since we manage one of out every five acres in the United States as an organization, and we have some other missions as well -- but given our very broad line management portfolio, one of the things we find in interacting with the public is pretty much on an acre-by-acre basis, there is somebody who wants to develop it, and there is somebody who wants to preserve it, and that we have this constant dialogue about what decisions we make in how we manage this land over time. Sometimes, that dialogue spills over into litigation. You didn't do it the way I want you to do it and so we end up in court, and we end up having a judge tell us what to do.

My experience with the Department of Interior, having worked there in the 1980s and now in the 2000s, is that the degree and energy put into litigation has been a significant issue. I think there are some other things that we're going to encounter over time that are issue-based, like it appears that we have a pretty widespread drought right now, and that there is concerns about whether we're prepared completely for a widespread drought; how long it's going to last; will it resolve itself in a short time; will it be a long time before it does; how broad it will be; do we have water transportation and storage systems in place to deal with it in a good way.

Climate change is a possibility. What kind of impact will that have? What will that do to our programs over time? Where do we go with that? The pressure of people moving into habitats that have an effect on species. We have a threatened and endangered species program that inevitably over time, you get more pressure as a result of human habitation moving into species' habitat.

Wildfire, you know we have a really big country that is subject to drought in a lot of places and the prevalence of wildfire is growing, and what we call the WUI, or the interface between the woods and urban community, is growing in the country. And it makes that much more expensive to manage a fire where houses are stuck inside the woods.

So there's a number of things that are coming up as our country changes over time that the Department of Interior will have to assess and change with it.

Mr. Morales: Now Jim, you described earlier your movements in and out of government. So I'm curious, what advice could you give to a person who perhaps is considering a career in public service?

Mr. Cason: My experience has been basically half in the private sector, half in government. And I have found that I've been very fortunate to have very interesting jobs on both sides of that fence. For anyone interested in public service, my opinion is that if you have an interest, you ought to try it. I have found that my time in public service has been very rewarding.

I've worked for the federal government for probably 17-18 years in total. And I would say I've never been bored a day of that time. It offers a wealth of opportunity, really interesting things to do. I find that I never have a lack of a problem that needs to be addressed, and so it's very interesting from that standpoint.

I would say I have equally rewarding experiences in the private sector as well. But the public sector offers something that's unusual that folks may be attracted to, and that is in my life, I had opportunities to work with the Department of Justice and our legal system, work actively with lawyers who are managing litigation; the opportunity to go up and be part of the Congressional process and see how legislation is actually developed and how it affects our lives on a day-to-day basis.

And so it has some things that you don't normally get in the private sector that make it very interesting. So anybody that's interested in trying it, I would encourage them to do so.

Mr. Morales: That's fantastic. Jim, unfortunately we have reached the end of our time. I want to thank you for fitting us into your busy schedule. But more importantly, Steve and I would like to thank you for your dedicated service to our country in the various roles you've held at the Department of the Interior. Mr. Cason: Well, thank you very much for the opportunity to come and join you. The Department of Interior is a great organization; it has a very broad mission that touches the lives of tens of millions of people within the United States. And I would suggest that to the extent that your listeners have the opportunity to go visit a national park or a Fish and Wildlife Refuge, they're really great places to be to recreate and reconnect with nature.

Mr. Morales: That's fantastic Jim. Thank you.

This has been The Business of Government Hour, featuring a conversation with Jim Cason, Associate Deputy Secretary at the U.S. Department of the Interior. My co-host has been Steve Seike, director in IBM's federal civilian industry.

As you enjoy the rest of your day, please take time to remember the men and women of our armed and civil services abroad who can't hear this morning show on how we're improving their government, but who deserve our unconditional respect and support.

For The Business of Government Hour, I'm Albert Morales.

Thank you for listening.

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