Federated Human Resource Management in the Federal Government: The Intelligence Community Model
The Intelligence Community developed a "federated" approach to its human capital system under the authority of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. This approach effectively balances the needs of the community with those of individual agencies. Unlike the traditional top-down approaches to policy development, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence worked closely with each of the 17 components of the Intelligence Community to agree upon a new human resource management framework. The 17 components voluntarily ceded some of their statutory autonomy in the interest of a stronger and more cohesive whole. The result is a robust set of changes that has achieved widespread acceptance. This approach may be a model for reforms in the broader civil service system.