Robert Klitgaard is Dean and Ford Distinguished Professor of International Development and Security at the RAND Graduate School. He previously served as Professor of Economics at the University of Natal, Durban; Lester Crown Professor of Economics at Yale; and Associate Professor of Public Policy at Harvard. He advises many governments and international institutions on economic strategy and institutional reform, and his consulting work and research have taken him to 30 countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. He is the author of seven books: Choosing Elites; Data Analysis for Development; Elitism and Meritocracy in Developing Countries; Controlling Corruption; Tropical Gangsters; Adjusting to Reality: Beyond State vs. Market in Economic Development; and, most recently, Corrupt Cities. Klitgaard received A.B., M.P.P., and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University.